2008年职称英语考题预测及教材变动复习重点

2008年教材上新增了大约17篇文章,词汇选项,阅读判断, 概括大意完成句子,
阅读理解, 补全短文, 完型填空各个题型上都有新增文章。
理工类和卫生类新增的文章更体现专业性。新增文章的语言难度和问题考点设置情况在一定程度上反映了08年考题的出题趋势。


(难度B/A级/2008年理工类教材新增文章)

[1. Nano materials]

The Tiniest Electric Motor in the World

纳米材料特殊性质举例

materials in nano size range exhibit some remarkable specific
properties, for example:
1.Crystals in the nanometer scale have a low melting point and reduced
lattice constants.
2.Bulk semiconductors become insulators when the characteristic
dimension is sufficiently small.

  1. Scientists recently made public the tiniest electric motor ever
    built. You could stuff hundreds of them into the period at the end of
    this sentence. One day a similar engine might power a tiny mechanical
    doctor that would travel through your body to remove your disease.

  2. The motor works by shuffling(来回运动) atoms(原子) between two
    molten metal droplets(小滴) in a carbon nanotube(纳米管). One
    droplet is even smaller than the other. When a small electric current is
    applied to the droplets, atoms slowly get out of the larger droplet and
    join the smaller one. The small droplet grows – but never gets as big as
    the other droplet – and eventually bumps into the large droplet. As they
    touch, the large droplet rapidly sops up (吸入)the atoms it had
    previously lost. This quick shift in energy produces a power
    stroke(动力行程).

  3. The technique exploits the fact that surface tension — the tendency
    of atoms or molecules to resist separating — becomes more important at
    small scales. Surface tension is the same thing that allows some insects
    to walk on water.

  4. Although the amount of energy produced is small — 20
    microwatts(百万分之一瓦) — it is quite impressive(给人印象深刻的)
    in relation to(与…相比) the tiny scale of the motor. The whole setup
    is less than 200 nanometers on a side, or hundreds of times smaller than
    the width of a human hair. If it could be scaled up to the size of an
    automobile engine, it would be 100 million times more powerful than a
    Toyota Camry’s 225 horsepower V6 engine.

  5. In 1988, Professor Richard Muller and colleagues made the first
    operating(工作的, 运行的) micromotor(微型发动机), which was 100
    microns(微米) across, or about the thickness of a human hair. In 2003,
    Zettl’s group created the first nanoscale motor. In 2006, they built a
    nanoconveyor(纳米传送带), which moves tiny particles along like cars
    in a factory.

  6. Nanotechnology(纳米技术) engineers try to mimic nature, building
    things atom-by-atom. Among other things, nanomotors could be used in
    optical circuits to redirect light, a process called optical switching.
    Futurists envision(预想) a day when nanomachines(纳米机器), powered
    by nanomotors(纳米发动机), travel inside your body to find disease and
    repair damaged cells.

纳米材料举例

Nanostructure materials are those with at least one dimension falling
in nanometer scale, and include:
nanoparticles, nano rods and nanowire, thin films, bulk materials made
of nanoscale building blocks or consisting of nanoscale structures.

练习:

纳米材料分类

Classification of NSMs (nanostructured materials)
zero-dimensional(0-D), 0 dimension is not confined to the nanoscale
range (<100nm)./ all dimensions are confined… {nanoparticles}
1-D, {nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes}
2-D, {nano coatings and nanofilms}
3-D, {dispersions of nanoparticles, bundles of nanowires and
nanotubes, multinanolayers}
1.matrix-reinforced nano composites: matrix reinforced with
nanoparticles, matrix reinforced with nanowires/nanotubes
2.layered nano composites: laminates, sandwiches

  1. Paragraph 2

  2. Paragraph 4

  3. Paragraph 5

  4. Paragraph 6

carbon

diamond: sp3; graphite: sp2
0D: fullerenes; 1D: carbon nanotubes; 2D: graphene; 3D: graphite

A An introduction of a Toyota’s 225 horsepower V6 engine.

Surface energy

for a given surface with a fixed surface area, the surface energy can
be reduced through: 1. surface relaxation; 2. surface restructuring;

  1. surface adsorption; 4. composition segregation.
    Therefore, a crystalline particle normally forms facets, instead of
    having a spherical shape. (reduction of the overall surface area)

B A description of the nanomotor in terms of power and size.

Chemical potential

![](http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\Delta
\mu = \gamma \Omega (1/R_1 + 1/R_2)) convex surface, the
curvature is positive, chemical potential of an atom is higher than
that on a flat surface. (concave is lower than flat)


C [u]Surface tension[/u](表面张力).

[2. Fabrication of nano materials]

D Previous inventions of nanoscale(纳米级的) products.

分类

top-down: etching
bottom-up: growth of thin films, nano lithography, nano manipulation

E The working principle of the nanomotor.

physical methods

evaporation technique
sputtering technique 溅射
lithography processes 平板印刷 (coat expose develop etch strip)
hot and cold plasma
spray pyrolysis 喷射 高温分解
inert gas phase condensation technique
pulsed laser ablation
sono-chemiacal reduction

F Possible fields of application in the future.

chemical methods

electrochemical deposition
electroless deposition
hydrothermal and solvothermal techniques
sol-gel technique (chemical solution deposition)
chemical vapor deposition
laser chemical vapor deposition technique


指定的四个段落都没有明显的段落主题句(2007年理工类A/B级概括大意题中四个指定段落都没有明显段落主题句),考生可以通过通读指定段落的大意来归纳出段落主题,
或借助一些有效的答题技巧确认段落主题。以确认段落第4段的段落主题为例分析答题技巧:

[3. Characterization of nano materials]

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